References

1. World Health Organization. Regional estimates for 2000-2012. http://www.who.int/ healthinfo/global_burden_disease/ estimates_regional/en/index1.html

2. European Society of Cardiology. European Cardiovascular Disease Statistics. 2012 http://www.escardio.org/The-ESC/Initiatives/EuroHeart/2012-European-Cardiovascular-Disease-Statistics

3. Perk J, De Backer G, Gohlke H et al. European Guidelines on cardiovascular disease prevention in clinical practice (version 2012). The Fifth Joint Task Force of the European Society of Cardiology and Other Societies on Cardiovascular Disease Prevention in Clinical Practice (constituted by representatives of nine societies and by invited experts). Eur Heart J 2012;33(13):1635-1701.

4. World Health Organization. WHO Guidelines Approved by the Guidelines Review Committee 2010.

5. How tobacco Smoke Causes Disease: The Biology and Behavioral Basis for Smoking-Attributable diseaseliana. A Report of the Surgeon General. 2010

6. Reiner Z, Catapano AL, De Backer G et al. ESC/EAS Guidelines for the management of dyslipidaemias: the Task Force for the management of dyslipidaemias of the European Society of Cardiology (ESC) and the European Atherosclerosis Society (EAS). Eur Heart J 2011;32(14):1769-1818.

7. Jarcho JA, Keaney JF, Jr. Proof That Lower Is Better--LDL Cholesterol and IMPROVE-IT. N Engl J Med 2015;372(25):2448-2450.

8. Williams KJ, Feig JE, Fisher EA. Rapid regression of atherosclerosis: insights from the clinical and experimental literature. Nat Clin Pract Cardiovasc Med 2008;5(2):91-102.

9. Ference BA, Yoo W, Alesh I et al. Effect of long-term exposure to lower low-density lipoprotein cholesterol beginning early in life on the risk of coronary heart disease: a Mendelian randomization analysis. J Am Coll Cardiol 2012;60(25):2631-2639.

10. Mancia G, Fagard R, Narkiewicz K et al. 2013 ESH/ESC guidelines for the management of arterial hypertension: the Task Force for the Management of Arterial Hypertension of the European Society of Hypertension (ESH) and of the European Society of Cardiology (ESC). Eur Heart J 2013;34(28):2159-2219.

11. Carretero OA, Oparil S. Essential hypertension. Part I: definition and etiology. Circulation 2000;101(3):329-335.

12. Lamon-Fava S, Wilson PW, Schaefer EJ. Impact of body mass index on coronary heart disease risk factors in men and women. The Framingham Offspring Study. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol 1996;16(12):1509-1515.

13. D'Agostino RB, Vasan RS, Pencina MJ et al. General cardiovascular risk profile for use in primary care: the Framingham Heart Study. Circulation 2008;117(6):743-753.

14. Brindle P, Emberson J, Lampe F et al. Predictive accuracy of the Framingham coronary risk score in British men: prospective cohort study. BMJ 2003;327(7426):1267.

15. Joint British Societies' consensus recommendations for the prevention of cardiovascular disease (JBS3). Heart 2014;100 Suppl 2:ii1-ii67.

16. Robinson JG, Smith B, Maheshwari N, Schrott H. Pleiotropic effects of statins: benefit beyond cholesterol reduction? A meta-regression analysis. J Am Coll Cardiol 2005;46(10):1855-1862.

17. Gylling H, Plat J, Turley S et al. Plant sterols and plant stanols in the management of dyslipidaemia and prevention of cardiovascular disease. Atherosclerosis 2014;232(2):346-360.

18. Chiuve SE, McCullough ML, Sacks FM, Rimm EB. Healthy lifestyle factors in the primary prevention of coronary heart disease among men: benefits among users and nonusers of lipid-lowering and antihypertensive medications. Circulation 2006;114(2):160-167.